My practice consists mostly of representing homeowners against their HOA (single-family homes) or COA (condos) and about half of my clients retain my services because they are being sued or about to be sued by their association. The problem is most homeowners do not understand their associations are in a superior position. Most people do not respond well to the covenant violation notices or intent to lien notices. The first reaction is usually "this can't be legal, this has to be wrong." Unfortunately, common sense doesn't dictate right or wrong in these cases and the law is very much on the side of the associations.
The first step to staying out of trouble with your association is to attend board meetings. Keep an eye on what's going on and what your board of directors are doing. If no one is holding them accountable they will think they can do and get away with anything. Even the most well-intentioned board members can lose sight of reality and what is legal if they are contributing a lot of their time to manage the association and no one cares to question their actions.
So what do you do if you are already in trouble? Do not ignore those notices!!! The problem will not go away. Even if you think the notice is wrong, rarely do the associations say they are wrong, they made a mistake and please forgive them. In fact, some will even tell you not to worry, its a mistake and then file a lawsuit to take your home.
If you have a notice for past due assessments, pay it in full. If you don't have the money, get a loan. If you can't get a loan, consider Chapter 13 bankruptcy. Chapter 7 will not save the home, but if you have income, Chapter 13 will save your home. If the notice came from an attorney, don't try to pay the association directly thinking you can avoid the attorneys' fees. You can't. By law any payments are applied to attorneys' fees first, then late fees and interest plus any other collection costs, and the assessments last!! While the association may accept your payment, the payment will be forwarded to the attorney and you will still be past due in paying your assessments. Even if you are past due $5, legally, the association can foreclose on your home. Trying to call the attorney and set up a payment plan will only incur more attorneys' fees. You can send the attorney a written offer of a payment plan, which is what the attorney will request anyway, but most law firms charge $250 or more to set up the payment plan and around $50 to process each payment. That's a lot of money to add to an already past due bill. Most associations have required the bill to be paid in two to six months, but with the state of the economy, many are considering one year payment plans and some will offer two years. Just keep in mind the extra fees the law firm charges for handling a payment plan. Also remember your association can foreclose even if your mortgage company is already foreclosing.
If you have received a notice of a covenant violation, do not ignore that either. Many times owners receive a notice for something that may have existed, but was recently corrected. Still do not ignore the notice!! Let the association know the condition was recently cured!! If your association is threatening a fine please note you are entitled to a hearing before a three member independent committee (no relation to board members or property managers) and the association has to give you fourteen (14) days notice of the hearing. You will have a chance to present your case and the committee has to vote whether or not to fine you. If they choose not to impose a fine, the board of directors cannot override the decision. If you have not fixed the violation they are accusing you of, then contact the association and let them know how soon you can fix it. Don't make the mistake of thinking they cannot force you to fix it. Most of the time they can.
Finally, always get approval from the association before making changes to your property. This is required in every association and the association has the right to make you restore your property to the original condition.
You have to keep in mind you gave up valuable property rights purchasing property subject to an association. You entered into a contract, even though you may not have known it at the time, and you are bound by the terms of that contract (the Declarations, Bylaws and Articles of Incorporation.)
While you can litigate against your association, it is very expensive and the loser has to reimburse the winner their attorneys' fees. These cases are not the type a lawyer will handle on a contingency because there are no physical injuries that would warrant big judgments. If you find an attorney who says they will take the case on a contingency, there is a high chance they have never handled an association case before. There are many procedural requirements to litigating against associations and a mistake could be very costly.
There are very few defenses to a lawsuit by your association. There is no excuse for not paying assessments, even if the board members are stealing money. The only possible defense is if the assessment imposed is invalid, which is rare. There are few defenses to not obtaining the association's permission before making improvements to your property.
Know the rules, play by the rules and make sure your association plays by the rules. If they don't your best and most inexpensive option is to organize a recall of the board.
Last but not least, pay attention to any bills that are being voted on by the Florida Legislature. Every year several bills are introduced and make their way through both houses. Contact your elected officials and let them know why they should or should not vote for a bill. A good example is the hard work my group of colleagues did years ago to remove the right of associations to lien and foreclose on homes for unpaid fines. The law was re-enacted, with a requirement the fine has to exceed a $1000, a couple of years later because the associations put pressure on the politicians. The change didn't help homeowners because now the associations just make sure your fine exceeds $1,000.
Does this sound all doom and gloom? If it got your attention and made you realize your association has way more power than our Constitution intended, then my job is done. Protect yourself by getting involved. Know what your board of directors is doing and know what your legislators are doing. The only way to stop the abuse is to hold everyone accountable.